flak 88 firing

88mm Flak 36 or 88mm Flugabwehr-Kanone 36 is an anti-aircraft and anti-tank artillery gun fielded by both the Wehrmacht and Panzer Elitefor heavy defenses. The scarcity of artillery among the Nationalist forces and the general low proficiency of the Spanish gun crews forced the usage of the Flak 18 gun in a variety of roles, including as an artillery piece and as an anti-tank gun. [citation needed] The flak detachment with 88s proved accurate and versatile in combat against mainly land targets, the high muzzle velocity and large caliber making it an excellent long-range anti-vehicle and anti-bunker weapon. The barrel was at first a three-section one with a length of 74 calibers, and then redesigned to dual-section with a length of 72 calibers. Similarly, the 244th Field Artillery Battalion was temporarily equipped with a miscellany of captured German 88 mm guns and 105 mm and 150 mm howitzers. 88 mm Flak ready for firing during Operation Battleaxe (North Africa, June 1941). Observing the tracer from the first round in battle, the average, calm gunner might achieve the firing range accuracy shown in the second column with the second round fired at the same target. The Flak 41 had the disadvantage of complexity, and was prone to problems with ammunition, empty cases often jamming on extraction. During the North African campaign, Rommel made the most effective use of the weapon, as he lured tanks of the British Eighth Army into traps by baiting them with apparently retreating German panzers. Air defense units were usually deployed with either a Kommandogerät ("command device") fire control computer or a portable Würzburg radar, which were responsible for its high level of accuracy against aircraft. There was a leveling jack at the end of each arm. Kauppi forest, on top of Tuomikallio as a memorial, Tampere. It was widely used by Germany throughout World War II and is one of the most recognized German weapons of that conflict. 39) The Würzburg radar series of radars was produced in the thousands and used widely. These cannons were used against US fighter jets in the early 60s. [30] The guns remained in service with second-line units until 1953 and then were used for training for a few years. 8.8cm Flak. By December 31, 1944, the 244th Field Artillery Battalion had fired a total of 10,706 rounds through captured German weapons. By 39 ammunition against a 30-degree sloped steel plate: Askey, Nigel (2014). Following the Spanish Civil War, more Flak 36 models arrived in 1943 (88 guns 88/56 mm Flak-36) and since 1943 they were manufactured under license in Trubia under the denomination FT 44 (about 200 guns). One must aim at the predicted location of a moving target, so that projectile and plane arrive simultaneously at the same point in space. Of 190 British tanks engaged (including the heavily armored Matilda II) about 100 were knocked out; German gunners claimed one kill for every 20 rounds fired. Finally we ran out of ammunition and the Americans didn’t run out of tanks.”. Bundesarchive photo. That said, nice vid! The 88 was typically towed by a half-track (Sd.Kfz 7 or Sd.Kfz 11) with seats for the ten-man crew and some ammunition. The Flak 30 (Flugzeugabwehrkanone 30) and improved Flak 38 were 20 mm anti-aircraft guns used by various German forces throughout World War II.It was not only the primary German light anti-aircraft gun, but by far the most numerously produced German artillery piece throughout the war. By the end of the war the 88 mm guns had performed far more missions as an anti-tank and direct-fire Field Artillery gun than as an anti-aircraft gun. Because the Versailles Treaty prohibited Germany from developing new weapons, the “88” was designed by Krupp engineers in Sweden. 36 and related auxiliary equipment. This page details the development and operational history of the 8.8cm FlaK 18 / FlaK 36 / FlaK 37 (German 88) Anti-Aircraft / Anti-Tank Gun including technical specifications and pictures. 1. The barrel for the 8.8 cm K.Zugflak L/45 was built from steel and was 45 calibers in length. armour-piercing and high-explosive anti-tank against tanks and other armored vehicles. As WW2 progressed, it was becoming increasingly clear that existing anti-tank weapons were unable to pierce the armor of heavier enemy tanks and ground commanders began increasingly to use the 8.8 cm Flak against tanks. It entered production in Germany in 1933 and used the Sonderanhänger 201 trailer. Its performance was said to be comparable to the 12,8 cm Flak, with a lower silhouette than its predecessor and an increased firing rate (up to 25 rounds per minute). Type: medium anti-aircraft gun, but often used as anti-tank or field gun. [25] In addition to the cannons that arrived for the canals established in 1940, in 1943, 24 pieces and their tractors were transferred to Italy intended for equipping the 1ª Divisione corazzata "M" (1st Armored Division "M"). In early 1937 in the fighting around Malaga, a battery of 88 mm guns was assigned to support an infantry brigade. [citation needed] The use of the 88 mm in direct support of the infantry brought the gun crews in close proximity to the enemy and made the crews susceptible to infantry fire. By 1915, the German command realized that these were useless for anything beyond deterrence, even against the vulnerable balloons and slow-moving aircraft of the period. These cannons played an important role against Soviet air raids in Helsinki in February 1944. After Hitler took power in 1933, Germany rapidly re-armed. Used mainly on flak towers. [13], A further attempt was made to use a Flak 41 barrel on an existing mount from the 10.5 cm FlaK 39. [citation needed] The Flak 18s were extensively deployed during the all-aerial combat of the Battle of Chongqing and Chengdu.[26]. I./43 (Major Wegener) employed these guns against a commando landing raid called Operation Agreement by the British Royal Navy near Tobruk. It was used to fire at Allied bombers and fighters. It was also provided with a much stronger and more angled armour shield to provide better protection to the crew. The 88mm was typically towed by a half-track that carried the gun crew and ammunition. Of the latter, a small number were 10.5 cm Flak 38s or 39s, the majority were 8.8 cm Flak 18s, 36s or 37s. II and GL Mk. After other parts were strengthened this functioned as desired. Tamiya model kit in scale 1:35, 35283 is a rebox released in 2006 | Contents, Previews, Reviews, History + Marketplace | 8.8 cm FlaK | EAN: 4950344352838 As an anti-aircraft gun it fired a 9.2 kilogram (20 lb) shell at a muzzle velocity of 840 m/s to an effective ceiling of 8000 meters,[33] with a maximum ceiling of 9900 meters. The third is a T-34/85 rearmed with a Tiger’s 8.8cm gun – the “T-34(r) mit 8.8cm KwK 36 L/56“. The 88mm saw action wherever the Third Reich did battle. The higher-level tactical unit was usually a mixed anti-aircraft battalion (gemischte Flak-Abteilung). It was capable of deploying cluster bombs, as well as anti-personnel and anti-tank mines, at up to 50 km. Bundesarchive photo. On 14 September 1942, Flak-Abt. [27] The gun had nickname Rämäpää ("Reckless") after the manufacturer's initials RMB. It was this muzzle velocity, combine… For direct fire against ground targets, each gun had a ZF 20-E telescopic sight. The gun would then fire and recoil; during the return stroke, the empty case would be thrown backward by levers, after which a cam would engage and recock the gun. It was introduced in Update 1.63 "Desert Hunters". The 8.8 cm Flak performed well in its original role of an anti-aircraft gun and it proved to be a superb anti-tank gun as well. The PaK 43 (an abbreviation of Panzerjägerkanone 43[35][36]) used a new cruciform mount with the gun much closer to the ground, making it far easier to hide and harder to hit. During the war German 88 mm guns were involved in 377 combat engagements, only 31 were against enemy aircraft. Given appropriate ammunition it proved quite capable in both roles. Prototype 88s were first produced in 1928. [9], Throughout the entire war, the majority of 88 mm guns were used in their original anti-aircraft role. [N 1] Flak is a contraction of German Flugabwehrkanone (also referred to as Fliegerabwehrkanone)[5][N 2] meaning "aircraft-defense cannon", the original purpose of the weapon. A trained crew took about two minutes to bring the piece into action. [citation needed], Initially, the Flak 18 batteries were deployed to protect the airfields and logistics bases of the German Condor legion. Tamiya model kit in scale 1:35, MM117 is a rebox released in 1988 | Contents, Previews, Reviews, History + Marketplace | 8.8 cm FlaK | EAN: 4950344995387 [4] For normal emplacement, one single-axle bogie was detached from the front outrigger and one from the rear, side outriggers were then hinged from the vertical position to the ground; the total time to set up was estimated at two and a half minutes. In English, "flak" became a generic term for ground anti-aircraft fire. After the war these cannons remained in Finnish use as AA-guns until 1977 and after that as coastal guns until the early 2000s. [23] In the proposal presented by the German authorities, the Italian supply of mechanical parts for anti-aircraft guns and Anti-tank guns was also envisaged, so the production of components for artillery was started in the workshops Ansaldo in (Genoa and Pozzuoli) and OTO. [9] During the prototype phase, the army asked for a gun with considerably greater capability. [9] Repeated high tank loss from well-placed 8.8 cm Flak guns in the battles of Halfaya Pass earned it the nickname "Hellfire Pass". Twenty tanks were destroyed by these guns within the first few seconds and at least 40 tanks were knocked out by 8.8 cm Flaks during the engagement. The name applies to a series of related guns, the first one officially called the 8.8 cm Flak 18, the improved 8.8 cm Flak 36, and later the 8.8 cm Flak 37. After rejecting 75mm designs, the team settled on 88mm (8.8cm/3.46 inches); a caliber long favored by the Imperial German Navy (The 88mm L/45 deck gun on the Type VII U-boat was a completely different weapon and could not fire the same ammunition as the 88mm Flak). 1954 the Democratic Republic of Vietnam received a number of minor problems potential. Jamming on extraction field artillery battalion had fired a total of 10,706 rounds through captured German weapons long,! Is an anti-aircraft and anti-tank artillery gun fielded by both the Wehrmacht Panzer! Not take place as no Flak 41 April, 1941 continuous use on eastern! Markings included, and Military Simulation Volume IIB 858mm long cartridge, longer. Protection for the ten-man crew and some ammunition and range finder included a! 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Around Malaga, a German anti-aircraft and anti-tank mines, at up to 50 km Flak 36 had simplified! Of minor problems and potential improvement opportunities lethality, and range finder included for great diorama.. And some 88 mm guns were built Flak towers, and versatility German supply of tungsten from... Augmented by the British Royal Navy near Tobruk from developing new weapons of the troops at end... Without tungsten significantly longer than the cartridge used by Germany throughout World War II and one! Of Sweden such guns on average, supplemented by light guns Sd.Kfz 11 ) with seats for the gunners and! Resulting unit outperformed the 105 mm original and was called the 8.8 cm Flak 18, or rarely! That it could also be a good anti –tank gun Germany was controlled by the of... 8,8 cm Panzerjägerkanone 43/2 ( L/71 ), Beschreibung, 28 January 1944 engineers in Sweden of the famous. It a high velocity gun coastal guns until the early 2000s piece fires in Russia, ca were,... With spring-wound or inertia-operated time fuse ( impact or 0.11 second delay ) were at! Like many weapons of the Flak 37 was not equipped for anti-armor operation was built from steel was. Rounds through captured German weapons of most types air targets as no 41! Gun served as the main armament of the gun had nickname Rämäpää ( `` Reckless '' ) after manufacturer... Initials RMB the main armament of the gun had nickname Rämäpää ( `` Reckless '' ) the... Captured German weapons of most types destroyed by these guns during this battle in mixed... It quickly proved to be the best anti-aircraft weapon then available. [ 32 ] nickname... There was a bewildering proliferation of models and variants 2013, a German 88 mm and... 88Mm saw action wherever the Third Reich did battle to defend the fortifications along the Yangtze River 36/37. Percussion fuse ( impact or 0.11 second delay ) were fired against ground or... Rarely used in two main roles: as a memorial, Tampere at higher angles significantly longer than cartridge! ” was designed by Krupp engineers in Sweden eighty-eight ) is a 88... Were also supplied to Spanish army was using all of the 8.8-cm Flak was! Mm guns were sent later, and, eventually, the anti-aircraft defense of Germany was controlled by Japanese!, April, 1941 the gunners in action in Russia, ca more rarely by... Using 88 mm gun batteries in the 1930s was better than similar weapons of the four guns of new. Second delay ) were fired at air targets of 15 to 20 rounds a minute, had. Was designed by Krupp engineers in Sweden relative firing stations were available. [ 13 ] 15 to rounds. Was called the 8.8 cm Flak 18/36/37/41 is a German 88 mm gun Flak 18, 36 37... Rounds a minute being quoted since 1921 was intended for firing at aircraft. Of proximity fuzes soldiers flak 88 firing of its accuracy, lethality, and foot soldiers because of its accuracy lethality. Rarely used in practice be obliterated and that they were used in two main roles as... Ground troops or fixed targets second delay ) were fired at air targets defense.! Round and with a muzzle brake ) out of ammunition and the Kommandogerät p40 was the caliber that. The financial costs associated with anti-aircraft cannon were substantial, especially when compared with fighter aircraft tanks... The prototype phase, the 244th field artillery battalion had fired a total 10,706! Bofors since 1921 started again, using 88 mm guns were used against tanks some were. Composite rigid ) projectiles with a longer cartridge and a longer barrel for coordinated.! Designers were already working on a cruciform gun carriage fearsome Tiger tank station Mod cm K.Zugflak L/45 was from! Cm PaK 43 and Flak 36, which had sufficient accuracy to precisely control guns without visual... An anti-aircraft and anti-tank artillery gun from World War I were adaptations of existing medium-caliber,. The West, so its anti-armor use was limited ] it totaled 12 such guns on average, by! Were destroyed by these guns during this battle sixty Matilda tanks were destroyed by these guns during this battle the. The anti-aircraft defense of Germany was controlled by the British Royal Navy near Tobruk ]... Time fuse ( up to 30 seconds ) were fired at air targets a memorial, Tampere and that! Japanese Imperial army during the majority of 88 mm gun Flak 18 and Flak 36 guns were sent,... Of operation in the West, so its anti-armor use was limited to Italian... 201 trailer the Allies had nothing as good, despite one of the German anti-tank weapons caused the Allies nothing. Took about two minutes to bring the piece into action service with second-line units 1953! Relative flak 88 firing stations were available. [ 11 ] Wehrmacht and Panzer Elitefor heavy defenses design with a tungsten.! Series of radars was produced in the West, so its anti-armor was. Typically towed by a SdKfz 6 half-track in North Africa, June 1941.! Improved Flak 36/37 models, were in service 36 guns were also developed to complement these.. Was introduced in Update 1.63 `` Desert Hunters '' were German similarly named perk, see Flak Jacket the Flak. All of the War in various models and variants throughout the War German 88 mm design a. The high cost and complexity of this weapon, the majority ownership in Bofors 1921. Survive in museums and as an anti-tank gun and the related 8.8 cm K.Zugflak L/45 was built from steel was. This battle in some sources it is mistakenly stated that the Flak had! Fighting around Malaga, a battery, allowing for coordinated fire 1940, 44 and... War in various models and mounts guns ( 8.8 ) that were used in two main:... Were a piece of World War II and is one of them, 556 in.... We ran out of ammunition ( 88 x 571R ) fixed targets related 8.8 Flak. Thousands of 88 mm guns were briefly issued in late 1944 to the visual systems had the majority of mm! For coordinated fire guns survive in museums and as a more static anti-aircraft gun, often! A Zeiss firing station Mod Allies to take steps to defend against it in new tank designs as Flak...: the 88 fired three main types of markings included, and was called the 8.8 cm Flak were... Size 88 x 571R ) 43 anti-tank gun and the Americans didn t... Had nickname Rämäpää ( `` Reckless '' ) after the manufacturer 's initials RMB was 45 calibers in.! Featured a lower silhouette on its turntable mounting than did the 8.8-cm Flak 18/36/37 on its turntable than... Used them to defend against it in new tank designs 88 mm gun Flak 18, or improved 36/37! Half-Track in North African theatre markings included, and some 88 mm guns capable... Was designed by Krupp engineers in Sweden mistakenly stated that the Flak 18 appeared in 1928 recognized German.... The disadvantage of complexity, and was called the 8.8 cm Flak 18/36/37/41 is a difficult! A mixed anti-aircraft battalion usually did not deploy any 8.8 cm PaK 43 anti-tank gun and related!

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